[:en]Female medical researcher checking out samples[:]

Malaria Testing On The African Continent : 2023 summary


Malaria is a big health problem in Africa, affecting lots of people and communities. Every year, it causes more than 400,000 deaths around the world, and many of these are children[1]. According to the WHO’s 2023 Malaria report, new cases of malaria significantly increased between 2019 and 2022, a situation that had not been true for prior years[2]. The slow but steady decline in malaria cases before then had been a reassuring factor, but this new data shows we need to renew efforts going in the direction of malaria elimination. Malaria testing is one the areas we need to double our efforts in, and in this article you will learn a little more about it.

Image 1. Close-up image of a mosquito.

There are different ways to test for malaria, like using a microscope to look at what’s in a patient’s blood, special rapid malaria test kits (called RDTs), or even urine test kits. Each way has its good and bad sides, and what’s chosen often depends on what’s available and what people can afford [3].

Indeed, economic barriers pose a challenge to effective malaria testing and treatment in Africa. Affordability and access to testing and treatment are major concerns, impacting individuals and communities, particularly in regions with limited resources [1].

In Benin Republic and other parts of Africa, it’s often hard for people to get the right diagnosis for malaria because the tests can be expensive given the population’s spending power. Sometimes, doctors give patients malaria medicine when still not sure the patients have the disease, because those patients can’t afford to get tested. This can lead to problems like increased anti-malarial drug resistance [4].

There’s hope though. Testing for malaria at home help in the future. It might make it easier for people to find out if they have malaria early on, which could help them get better faster. Hopefully this is not just a pipe dream. This new way of testing could really help a lot of people, especially in places where getting to a doctor is hard[1].

My personal experience with getting malaria

In Benin Republic, where I grew up, not everyone can afford to go to the doctor when they feel sick. Malaria is common, and it can make you really ill, but getting tested for it at a doctor’s office can be too expensive for a lot of people. So, what do they do? Many times, they have no choice but to go straight to a pharmacy and buy medicine without a prescription. They hope it’s the right treatment for whatever is making them sick.

When some people do manage to visit a doctor, the doctor might want to do a test to see if it’s really malaria. But here’s the problem: even if they’ve paid to see the doctor, the test itself costs extra, and it’s money that many just don’t have. So, they still end up going to a pharmacy without prescription to buy medicine based on their symptoms, without getting the test the doctor asked for to confirm their diagnosis.

There are also times when the doctor understands that the patient can’t pay for the test. So, the doctor might decide to just write a prescription for malaria medicine without asking for the test. It’s an educated guess, because the symptoms of malaria are well known, but it’s still a guess. The doctor is trying to help, but it’s not the perfect solution. The current state of things shows how tough the situation can get when you can’t afford everything you need to take care of your health.

Dispelling Malaria Myths

In places where malaria is common, like where I live, people know a lot about the disease. But in places where it’s not common, called ‘non-endemic areas’, there are misunderstandings. Some people in these areas think you can catch malaria from other people, but that’s not true. Scientists have shown that malaria only comes from the bite of a certain type of mosquito, not from people [5], [6].

It’s really important for everyone, no matter where they live, to know this. When people understand the real way malaria spreads, they can take the right steps to prevent it and won’t be afraid of catching it from someone else. The table below helps dispel some of the myths concerning malaria.

Malaria is contagious and can be spread from person to person.Malaria cannot be spread from person to person. It is transmitted through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.
Only dirty or stagnant water breeds malaria-carrying mosquitoes.Malaria-carrying mosquitoes can breed in various types of water bodies, including clean, stagnant water and sometimes even in small amounts of water like in discarded containers.
Malaria is only a concern in rural areas.Malaria can affect people in both rural and urban areas, although the risk may be higher in rural areas due to more breeding sites for mosquitoes.
If you’ve had malaria once, you’re immune to it.Having malaria once does not make you immune. You can get malaria more than once.
All mosquito bites at night result in malaria.Not all mosquitoes carry the malaria parasite. Only bites from female Anopheles mosquitoes that are infected with malaria parasites can transmit the disease.
There’s no need for malaria testing if symptoms are mild.Proper testing for malaria is important, regardless of the severity of symptoms, as it ensures accurate diagnosis and treatment.
Malaria is always fatal.Malaria is a serious disease but is not always fatal. With prompt diagnosis and proper treatment, most people recover.
Table 1. This table helps discern myth from fact when it comes to malaria.

When communities, even in non-endemic areas, learn the truth about how malaria spreads, they can help in the global fight against the disease. Plus, knowing the facts means people won’t unfairly fear or avoid others who have malaria. Studies show that the right information about malaria helps a lot in controlling the disease, everywhere in the world [7], [8].

Some Methods Used to Test for Malaria

When it comes to testing for malaria, there are several methods used to diagnose the disease. Let’s take a closer look at three common methods: Microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs), and Urine Test Kits.


This method involves examining a blood sample under a microscope to look for the malaria parasite. It is considered the gold standard for malaria diagnosis due to its high accuracy [9]. However, it requires skilled technicians, and the results may take some time, usually a few hours to a day. Microscopy is often used in healthcare facilities with laboratory services.

Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs)

RDTs are simple, easy-to-use tests that can provide results within 15 to 20 minutes [10]. They work by detecting specific proteins produced by the malaria parasite. RDTs are widely used in areas where laboratory facilities are limited, such as remote or rural communities. While they offer quick results and are relatively easy to use, their accuracy may vary depending on factors such as storage conditions and the specific test used.

Urine Test Kits

These kits detect malaria antigens in urine samples [11]. They are non-invasive and relatively easy to use, making them suitable for field settings. However, their accuracy may be lower compared to other methods, and they are not as commonly used as blood-based tests.

Testing MethodAccuracy
Time for Results
MicroscopyHigh accuracy, considered the gold standard.About an hour or more, depending on lab capacity.Relatively expensive due to the need for skilled technicians and lab equipment.Requires trained personnel and laboratory facilities, less practical in remote areas.
RDTs (Rapid Diagnostic Tests)Generally reliable, but accuracy can vary depending on the brand and storage conditions.15 to 20 minutes.Less expensive than microscopy, cost-effective for widespread use.Easy to use in various settings, including remote areas. No lab required.
Urine Test KitsLower accuracy compared to other methods.Similar to RDTs.Generally inexpensive, costs comparable to RDTs.Very user-friendly and non-invasive, suitable for field settings and home use.
Table 2. This table summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of various malaria testing methods.

Each of these methods has its pros and cons. While microscopy is highly accurate, it requires skilled personnel and laboratory facilities. RDTs offer quick results and are suitable for remote areas, but their accuracy can be affected by various factors. Urine test kits are non-invasive and easy to use, but their accuracy may be a concern.

In different parts of Africa, these testing methods are used based on factors such as resource availability, infrastructure, and the specific needs of the community. It’s important to consider the strengths and limitations of each method to ensure accurate diagnosis and effective malaria management.

Affordability and Access

Affordability of prevention and control measures

Malaria control in Africa faces significant economic barriers, impacting both individuals and broader public health efforts. For example, the affordability of malaria treatment is affected by economic constraints, such as the increased costs that could be linked to the import of Southeast Asian parasites [12], [13]. This situation could lead to the demise of affordable drugs, making it harder for people to access the treatment they need.

Moreover, others discuss the broader implications of these economic barriers. They emphasize the importance of maintaining investment and vigilance, especially during efforts to eliminate malaria. The battle against malaria is not just about finding effective treatments but also about ensuring they are accessible and affordable for everyone [14], [15].

Additionally, research by other groups delves into the economic, financial, and institutional challenges in eradicating malaria [17]. They also explore how environmental factors like temperature fluctuations can affect mosquito populations and, consequently, the risk of malaria (as the 2023 WHO Malaria report also does). This research underscores the complex interplay between economic barriers and malaria control efforts.

Access to healthcare

Other articles further illustrate the challenges faced by local patients in accessing affordable healthcare, and therefore testing. One study points to the need for improvements in healthcare accessibility and affordability at the local level[16]. This is crucial because the success of malaria control and testing efforts heavily depends on the ability of individuals to access and afford medical laboratories and treatment centers.

Image 2. Settlements or villages can sometimes be quite far from clinics.

It is quite clear that improved access, affordability, and sustained investment are crucial in the fight against malaria. These studies highlight the need for a multi-faceted approach that addresses both the medical and economic aspects of malaria control.

Home-Based Malaria Testing: Innovations and Challenges

Recent years have seen remarkable progress in home-based malaria testing, offering new hope in the fight against this disease. Innovations in this area have the potential to transform how malaria is diagnosed, especially in remote or under-resourced areas.

Innovative Approaches and Community Involvement in Malaria Testing

In recent years, several studies have shown groundbreaking progress in malaria testing, especially in home-based and community-driven approaches.

In 2015, a study in Kenya introduced Fionet, a new system combining diagnostics, data management, and internet technology to fight malaria. Fionet’s success lies in its ability to work effectively even in remote areas where healthcare access is limited, making a significant difference in malaria control [18].

Additionally, a study in Cameroon demonstrated the effectiveness of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) used in home settings. This approach allowed for quick diagnosis and immediate treatment, showing how home-based testing can be a powerful tool in managing malaria, especially in areas far from healthcare facilities [19].

Community involvement has also played a crucial role in malaria control. Research in sub-Saharan Africa revealed the success of home-based testing facilitated by community health workers, indicating that local involvement is key in managing and preventing malaria [20]. Similarly, a 2020 study in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil highlighted how community-driven approaches could significantly control malaria. This approach showed that when communities actively participate in malaria control, the impact is substantial [21].

Addressing the Challenges for Effective Implementation

While these innovative methods show promise, there are notable challenges. A 2020 study pointed out difficulties such as financial constraints in implementing home-based malaria testing. The need for sustainable investment and support in malaria control programs is crucial to overcome these hurdles [22].

Another significant insight from 2020 by Wang and colleagues emphasizes the need for affordable and practical testing methods. Their research suggested that training family members to use RDTs could expedite malaria diagnosis, leading to faster treatment and improved outcomes in remote areas [23].

These advancements in home-based testing and community involvement are promising strides in the fight against malaria. However, addressing economic challenges and ensuring sustained support are vital for the success and scalability of these methods.

Joining the Fight Against Malaria

As we finish talking about malaria, it’s clear that there’s still a lot of work to do to beat this disease. But there’s also a lot of hope. Everyone can help in this fight, whether it’s by telling others about malaria, helping with research, or supporting good health policies. Every small action you take can make a big difference.

There have been a lot of improvements in how we test for malaria, like better tests in labs and new ways to test at home. But we can’t stop there. We need to keep working hard, making sure everyone can get the help they need to fight malaria.

Looking back at my own experiences with malaria, I see how much has changed and how much more we need to do. I remember being sick often with malaria when I was younger and how debilitating it was for my me. These memories make me want to see a world where malaria isn’t a common problem anymore. I hope for a future where kids don’t have to get sick from malaria, and families don’t have to worry about it.


[1]         D. J. Weiss et al., “Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria intervention coverage, morbidity, and mortality in Africa: a geospatial modelling analysis,” Lancet Infect Dis, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 59–69, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30700-3.

[2]         W. Health Organization, World malaria report 2023. 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240086173

[3]         J. A. Garrido-Cárdenas, L. González-Cerón, F. Garcı́a-Maroto, J. Cebrián-Carmona, F. Manzano‐Agugliaro, and C. Mesa-Valle, “Analysis of Fifty Years of Severe Malaria Worldwide Research,” Pathogens, 2023, doi: 10.3390/pathogens12030373.

[4]         L. Ndwiga et al., “A Review of the Frequencies of Plasmodium Falciparum Kelch 13 Artemisinin Resistance Mutations in Africa,” Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2021.06.001.

[5]         K. R. Dronamraju and P. Arese, “Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects,” 2006, doi: 10.1007/0-387-28295-5.

[6]         R. W. Compans et al., “Malaria: Drugs, Disease and Post-Genomic Biology,” 2005, doi: 10.1007/3-540-29088-5.

[7]         I. Ayi et al., “School-Based Participatory Health Education for Malaria Control in Ghana: Engaging Children as Health Messengers,” Malar J, 2010, doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-98.

[8]         Y. Y. Bahk et al., “Epidemiological Characteristics of Re-Emerging Vivax Malaria in the Republic of Korea (1993-2017),” Korean J Parasitol, 2018, doi: 10.3347/kjp.2018.56.6.531.

[9]         J. H. H. Ehrich and F. U. Eke, “Malaria-Induced Renal Damage: Facts and Myths,” Pediatric Nephrology, 2007, doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0332-y.

[10]      K. A. Moat, J. N. Lavis, M. G. Wilson, J.-A. Røttingen, and T. Bärnighausen, “Twelve Myths About Systematic Reviews for Health System Policymaking Rebutted,” J Health Serv Res Policy, 2013, doi: 10.1258/jhsrp.2012.011175.

[11]      T. Oguonu et al., “The performance evaluation of a urine malaria test (UMT) kit for the diagnosis of malaria in individuals with fever in south-east Nigeria: Cross-sectional analytical study,” Malar J, vol. 13, no. 1, Oct. 2014, doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-403.

[12]      C. Roper, R. P. Pearce, S. Nair, B. Sharp, F. Nosten, and T. Anderson, “Intercontinental Spread of Pyrimethamine-Resistant Malaria,” Science (1979), 2004, doi: 10.1126/science.1098876.

[13]      G. F. Killeen, “Characterizing, Controlling and Eliminating Residual Malaria Transmission,” Malar J, 2014, doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-330.

[14]      N. Pirzada, “The Expansion of Turkey’s Medical Tourism Industry,” Voices in Bioethics, 2022, doi: 10.52214/vib.v8i.9894.

[15]      R. Feachem et al., “Shrinking the Malaria Map: Progress and Prospects,” The Lancet, 2010, doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(10)61270-6.

[16]      J. Kennedy, I. Holcombe-James, and K. Mannell, “Access Denied,” M/C Journal, 2021, doi: 10.5204/mcj.2785.

[17]      A. Mills, Y. Lubell, and K. Hanson, “Malaria Eradication: The Economic, Financial and Institutional Challenge,” Malar J, 2008, doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-s1-s11.

[18]      D. Soti et al., “Feasibility of an Innovative Electronic Mobile System to Assist Health Workers to Collect Accurate, Complete and Timely Data in a Malaria Control Programme in a Remote Setting in Kenya,” Malar J, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0965-z.

[19]      E. D. Kenfack, N. Tendongfor, and D. S. Nsagha, “Home-Based Intervention for the Prevention and Treatment of Malaria Among Children Younger Than 5 Years in the West Region of Cameroon: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial,” JMIR Res Protoc, 2021, doi: 10.2196/19633.

[20]      S. Ranasinghe et al., “Attitudes Toward Home-Based Malaria Testing in Rural and Urban Sierra Leone,” Malar J, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0582-x.

[21]      J. Prat et al., “Community-Based Approaches for Malaria Case Management in Remote Communities in the Brazilian Amazon,” Rev Soc Bras Med Trop, 2020, doi: 10.1590/0037-8682-0048-2020.

[22]      T. Gordon, F. Booysen, and J. Mbonigaba, “Socio-Economic Inequalities in the Multiple Dimensions of Access to Healthcare: The Case of South Africa,” BMC Public Health, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-8368-7.

[23]      L. WANG et al., “Knowledge, Awareness and Practices of Malaria in Western Area Rural District, Sierra Leone: A Household-Based Cross-Sectional Survey in the Middle of National Malaria Strategic Plan (2016-2020),” 2020, doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-16373/v1.


  • Robertson Klaingar

    With over a decade of experience in the field of bioanalysis and medical laboratory science, Robertson Klaingar has developed an expertise in laboratory testing, data analysis, and biomedical research.

    View all posts

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